A) Define industry “standard practice”

“The basic criterion for distinguishing R&D from related activities is the presence in R&D of an appreciable element of novelty and the resolution of scientific and/or technological uncertainty, i.e. when the solution to a problem is not readily apparent to someone familiar with the basic stock of common knowledge and techniques for the area concerned.” 1

B) Technological objective beyond standard practice

“…. If the primary objective is to make further technical improvement on the product or process then the work comes within the definition of R&D .…… if the primary objective is to develop markets, to do preproduction’s planning or control system working smoothly, then the work is no longer R&D 2

1 Frascati Manual 2002 paragraph 84
2 Frascati Manual (2002) proposed standard practice for survey on research and experimental development Paragraph 111