“The basic criterion for distinguishing R&D from related activities is the presence in R&D of an appreciable element of novelty and the resolution of scientific and/or technological uncertainty, i.e. when the solution to a problem is not readily apparent to someone familiar with the basic stock of common knowledge and techniques for the area concerned.” 1
The paper includes some supplementary criteria for distinguishing R&D.
- What is new or innovative about this project?
- Is it seeking previously undiscovered phenomena, structures or relationships?
- Does it apply knowledge or techniques in a new way?
- Is there a significant chance that it will result in new (extended or deeper) understanding of phenomena,
- relationships or manipulative principles of interest to more than one organization
- Are the results expected to be patentable?
1 Frascati Manual 2002 paragraph 84